Colorado State University — Pueblo, Spring 2017
Math 156, Introduction to Statistics
Course Schedule and Homework Assignments
Here is a link back to the course syllabus/policy page.
This schedule is will be changing very frequently, please check it at
least every class day, and before starting work on any assignment (in case the
content of the assignment has changed).
Below, we refer to the class text Lies, Damned Lies, or Statistics
as LDLoS. The whole book is available here,
although below there will be links to particular sections of the book that
you are asked to read and in which you will find problems to do.
If you see the symbol
below, it means that class was videoed and you can get a link by emailing me.
Note that if you know ahead of time that you will miss a class, you should
tell me and I will be sure to video that day for you.
When there is a reading assignment, please read the named section(s) before
that day.
Homework for a particular day is due that day, either in class or
handed in at my office by 3pm.
Week 1
 :
 Yes, we do (officially) have class today, even though
it is the federal holiday commemorating the birthday of Martin Luther
King, Jr. (who was actually born on January 15^{th},
1929). If you miss class today, contact me and I will get you caught
up (without penalty). And, come to class or not, why don't you watch
this video of
one of MLK's most famous speeches? He was an amazing orator (and
leader and organizer and thinker).
 A lot of bureaucracy and introductions.
 Read the course syllabus and policy page.
 HW0 Send me email (at
jonathan@poritz.net)
telling me:
 Your name.
 Your email address. (Please give me one that you actually check
fairly frequently, since I may use it to contact you during the
term.)
 Your year/program/major at CSUP.
 What you intend to do after CSUP, in so far as you have an idea.
 Past math classes you've had.
 The reason you are taking this course.
 Your favorite mathematical subject.
 Your favorite mathematical
result/theorem/technique/example/problem.
 Anything else you think I should know (disabilities, employment
or other things that take a lot of time, etc.).
 [Optional:] The name of a good book you have read
recently.
Please do this some time Monday. But as some direct incentive: I will
only enter your name into my gradebook and give you your Homework
Late Passes when I get this email, so you really need to
do this assignment as soon as possible. [By the way, just to be fair,
in case you are interested, here is a
version of such a selfintroductory email with information as I would
fill it out for myself.]
 Some content we discussed, terms defined:
 some big picture discussion of what the whole subject of
statistics is about
 individuals, population
 variables, which can be categorical or
quantitative
 :
 Read LDLoS up
to and including §1.3.2
 Some content we discussed, terms defined:
 graphs for categorical variables:
 graphs for a quantitative variables:
 a stemandleaf plot
 the most important such graph: a histogram
 Hand in BI1. This will be an unusual one: write down two or
three things you were surprised about in the organization of this
course. Be specific, mention types or numbers or formats of some
assignments, etc.
 :
 Reread LDLoS
§1.3.2 and read
§§1.3.3 &
1.3.4
 Some content we discussed, terms defined:
 histograms
 variants: frequency and relative frequency
 bins [or classes] and their edge behavior
 shape: symmetric, skew, multimodal
 Quiz 1 today (on material covered on Monday and Wednesday
this week)
 Hand in HW1: problems 1.{1, 2, 3} on
this page of LDLoS.
 Hand in BI2 (on an idea from Wednesday's class or readings)
 Today [Friday] is the last day to add classes.
Week 2
 :
 Read LDLoS
§1.4 Intro, & §1.4.1
& §1.4.2
 Hand in BI3 (on an idea from Friday's class or readings)
 Going over Quiz 1
 Our original assignment was to hand in ASE1; however, since
we did not go over ASEs in class on Friday, you may had this in on
Wednesday, if you prefer, without it being late.
The first ASE is quite simple and will likely
be fairly short (1/2 a page?): Find on a website, in a newspaper or
magazine, or in a book (maybe a textbook from another class) a
passage (or graph) which uses one or more of the terms we have worked
with so far in this class (the terms in bold above or in the
textbook). What you are to hand in should have the following parts:
 A statement of the source of your passage. This does
not have to be in any particular bibliographic format, but it
should have enough information so that I could find the passage
myself either in a library or on the Internet.
 Quote the passage or copy the graph. You might
want to cutandpaste into a word processor page, or print out or
copy the item and attach it to the rest of your ASE.
 Have an explanation of the quote or graph: identify what
are the individuals, population, variables and what type they are
(categorical or quantitative), and methods (kind of graph; mean or
skew or whatever) used.
 Give a critique of the method:
 Is an appropriate method being used (e.g., pie charts
only work for categorical variables where the total is 100% of
the data, etc.)?
 Are good rules used in display (correct terminology used,
graphs fully labelled, high enough resolution to show what is
interesting, etc.)?
 Do you have any concerns about the reliability of the data
— is there an explanation of where it came from, is it
reasonable to assume that it is accurate?
 etc.
Here is an example of the kind of thing we
are looking for. (The "critique" in this example is very friendly and
positive — which is actually unsurprising, since the source is a
famously careful and impartial research organization — while
yours may not be as positive (e.g., sometimes it is fun to find
a published statistic which is full of errors!).
 Some new content we discussed, terms defined:
 the mode of a dataset
 summation notation, $\Sigma x_i$.
 the sample mean $\overline{x}$.
 the population mean $\mu$.
 :
 Read LDLoS
§1.4.3 &
§1.4.4
 Hand in ASE1, if you did not already do so on Monday.
 Going over HW1
 Some content we discussed, terms defined:
 electronic tools for basics statistical graphing and calculation
 the median
 outliers, informally
 which measures of central tendency are sensitive to
outliers and which are not.
 comparison between median and mean pointing towards the skew of
a histogram
 Many web pages describe how to use your favorite calculator to do
statistical computations. If you have a TI84, for example,
this
is a good reference for variance, standard deviation, and IQR. If you
have another calculator, just use your favorite search engine to look
for "compute standard deviation on a calculator name." You can
also find many smartphone apps, some probably free, on your favorite
app store. And finally, if you search for "online standard deviation
calculator," you will find many web pages which will do these kinds of
computations for you on whatever Internetconnected device you have.
 Hand in BI4 on something from Monday's class or reading
 :
 Read LDLoS
§1.5.1 & §1.5.2.
 Some content we discussed, terms defined:
 the notation $x_{min}$ and $x_{max}$
 ranges
 quartiles $Q_1$ and $Q_3$
 the IQR
 Hand in HW2: problems 1.{4, 5, 6} starting on
this page of LDLoS.
 Hand in BI5 (on an idea from Wednesday's class or readings)
 Quiz 2 today on the material from last Friday and this Monday
and Wednesday.
Week 3
 :
 Reread LDLoS
§1.5.2 and read
§1.5.3
 Some content we discussed, terms defined:
 going over Quiz 2
 quartiles and IQR again, also using technology
 variance and standard deviation, both for samples
and populations
 This page (which we have seen before) explains how to compute IQRs on a
TI84, if that's your calculator. If you have a different
calculator, just use your favorite search engine to look for
"compute IQR on a calculator name" or "compute quartiles on a
calculator name." You can also find many smartphone apps,
some probably free, on your favorite app store. And finally, if you
search for "online IQR calculator" or "online quartile calculator"
you will find many web pages which will do these kinds of
computations for you on whatever Internetconnected device you have.
 Hand in ASE2: Your second ASE should
be something about what we've been covering since the first one,
probably to do with means, medians, modes, quartiles, ranges, IQRs,
etc. It should have the same parts as the first ASE, as
described above, including
 Source.
 Quote/copy.
 Explanation. Always including clear statements of
what are the
 individuals
 population
 sample
 variable(s) and what type(s)
 statistical methods and terms, such as if any of the
following are used
 graphs and their types
 descriptive works, such as symmetric, unimodal,
skewed, etc.
 numerical summaries, such as mean, median,
quartiles, etc.
Note these methods and terms maybe not be stated, or may be
stated in a more casual way (e.g., average instead of
mean), and your main task is to identify clearly, in
the terminology of our class, all of these terms and methods
 Critique. This must include the following
 Is an appropriate method being used (e.g., pie charts
only work for categorical variables where the total is 100% of
the data, etc.)?
 Whenever there are statistical methods or terms
used for which we in class know more than one way to do the
thing your source is doing, comment on whether the choice
they made was a good one. E.g., if your source talks
about an average, discuss whether using the
median or mode might have been a better choice;
if it uses a pie chart, talk about whether a
bar chart might have been better, etc.
 Are good rules used in display (correct terminology used,
graphs fully labelled, high enough resolution to show what is
interesting, etc.)?
 Do you have any concerns about the reliability of the data
— is there an explanation of where it came from, is it
reasonable to assume that it is accurate?
 Anything else you feel should add to or subtract from the
validity of the material presented in your source.
If you are looking for a good source of possible statistics in the
wild to analyze on an ASE, you could try:
 any material used in one of your other classes
 any online version of a newspaper, such as
 a specifically datadriven organization, such as one of the
following [descriptions below, when in quotation marks and
italics are taken from the respective site's
selfdescription]

FiveThirtyEight
[FiveThirtyEight is an online journalism site which applies
careful research and thoughtful statistical modeling to
current stories in politics, economics, science, "life", and
sports. It was founded by Nate Silver, who has done
statistical analysis for sports betting and also predicted
statebystate the outcomes in the presidential elections
of 2008 and 2012 with incredible accuracy.]

The Pew Research
Center ["Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan fact
tank that informs the public about the issues, attitudes and
trends shaping America and the world. It conducts public
opinion polling, demographic research, media content analysis
and other empirical social science research. Pew Research
does not take policy positions."]

The Gapminder
Foundation ["Gapminder is a nonprofit venture –
a modern 'museum' on the Internet – promoting
sustainable global development and achievement of the United
Nations Millennium Development Goals."]

the Gallup polling
organization ["Gallup delivers forwardthinking
research, analytics, and advice to help leaders solve their
most pressing problems. Combining more than 75 years of
experience with its global reach, Gallup knows more about the
attitudes and behaviors of the world's constituents,
employees, and customers than any other organization."]
One thing you must avoid in ASEs is using as the source you
will analyze a website or textbook section which is statistical
instructional materials. The goals of ASEs is for you to work
with real, live data, not for you to take canned example from
a stat textbook or Wikipedia page on some statistical method or
terminology.
 Hand in BI6 (on an idea from Friday's class or readings)
 Today [Monday] is the last day to drop classes without a grade
being recorded.
 :
 Reread §1.5.3 and read
§§1.5.4 &
1.5.5
 Some content we discussed, terms defined:
 calculating variance and standard deviation with electronic
tools
 strengths and weaknesses of different numerical measures of the
spread of some data
 the 1.5 IQR rule for outliers
 Hand in BI7 (on an idea from Monday's class or readings)
 :
 Read LDLoS §1.5.6
 Some content we discussed, terms defined:
 the fivenumber summary and its graphical version, the
boxplot [also called the boxandwhisker plot]
 making boxplots with electronic tools
 Hand in BI8 (on an idea from Wednesday's class or readings)
 Hand in HW3: problems 1.{7, 8, 9} starting on
this page of LDLoS.
 Quiz 3 today [on material from last Friday to this Wednesday]
Week 4
 :
 Read LDLoS §2.1
 Some content we discussed, terms defined:
 going over Quiz 3
 going over HW3
 independent and dependent variables [also called
explanatory and response variables]
 deterministic and nondeterministic relationships
between variables
 scatterplots; their shape, strength, and
direction
 Hand in BI9 (on an idea from Friday's class or readings)
 Hand in ASE3. See above, here and
here, for the required parts of an
ASE (the second of those explanations above also has a list of
a few sites you could go to in order to find materials for an
ASE, although of course something you are interested in yourself
would probably be much more fun). Please look for something which
mentions variability, standard deviation,
quartiles, and/or outliers, or which uses the
fivenumber summary or boxplots
 :
 Read LDLoS §2.2 and
§2.3
 Some content we discussed, terms defined:
 qualitative description of the association shown in a scatterplot
 shape,
 strength, and
 direction
 the [Pearson] correlation coefficient $r$ of bivariate
data
 defining formula
 computing with electronic tools
 always satisfies $1\le r\le 1$
 meaning of the size of $r$
 meaning of the sign of $r$
 independence of units
 Hand in BI10 (on an idea from Monday's class or readings)
 :
 Read LDLoS §3.1
 Some content we discussed, terms defined:
 the idea of linear regression
 sketching the line of best fit
 one point the regression line should go through:
$(\overline{x},\overline{y})$.
 the residuals of a regression line
 the least squares regression line [LSRL]: definition
 formulæ for the LSRL
 Hand in BI11 (on an idea from Wednesday's class or readings)
 Quiz 4 today [on material from last Friday to this Wednesday]
 Hand in HW4: problem 1.10 on
this page and problems 2.{1,2,3}
on this page of LDLoS
Week 5
 :
 Read LDLoS
Chapter 3 Intro & §3.1 &
§3.2
 Some content we discussed, terms defined:
 going over Quiz 4
 going over HW4
 Review of equations of lines — particularly their
slope and $y$intercept
 Repeating (from Friday) the basic definitions and facts for the
LSRL
 Simpson's Paradox (which is in our textbook LDLoS
here)
 Applications of the LSRL:
 interpolation
 interpretation in a problem context of the slope and
$y$intercept of an LSLR
 Hand in BI12 (on an idea from Friday's class or readings)
 :
 Read LDLoS §3.3
 Some content we discussed, terms defined:
 bivariate outliers
 sensitivity of the correlation coefficient and LSRL to outliers
 correlation is not causation
 extrapolation
 Review for Test I. See this review sheet.
 Hand in BI13 (on an idea from Monday's class or readings)
 Hand in HW5: problems 3.{1, 2, 3} on
this page of LDLoS.
 :
 Test I in class today. Make sure you are comfortable with
the material outlined on this review sheet.
Don't forget your calculator, or other favorite electronic
device, if you use one!
Week 6
 :
 Yes, we do have class today, even though it is the federal
holiday commemorating the birthday of George Washington (who was
actually born on February 22^{nd}, 1732), although
this holiday is often casually referred to as "Presidents' Day."
 Test I postmortem.
 Hand in ASE4. Please try to find something which mentions
or uses scatterplots, correlation or the
correlation coefficient, or maybe even
[linear] regression
 :
 Read LDLoS
Introduction to Part 2,
Introduction to Chapter 4, and
§4.1
 Some content we discussed, terms defined:
 the idea of randomness
 sample spaces, outcomes, events
 the idea of probability, a probability model
 complement of a subset [event], notation $E^c$,
translation into English: not
 probability rule for complements
 Hand in BI14. This is a special one: please write a paragraph
about how you think Test I went for you. Are you perfectly content
with how it turned out? If not, what do you think was the cause of the
trouble? And what can you do next time to make things better?
 Hand in Test I revisions, if you like.
 :
 Reread LDLoS
§4.1
 Some content we discussed, terms defined:
 intersection of sets [events], notation $A\cap B$,
translation into English: and
 union of sets [events], notation $A\cup B$,
translation into English: or
 disjoint events, notation $\emptyset$ for the
empty set
 finishing the definition of a probability model
 Venn diagrams — how to fill in numbers correctly
 Hand in BI15 (on an idea from Wednesday's class or readings)
 Hand in HW6: problems 4.{1, 2, 3} on
this page of LDLoS.
[NOTE: due to network problems, this assignment was not posted until
late Thursday afternoon. Therefore, if you hand it in on Monday, that
will not be considered late!]
Week 7
 :
 Reread LDLoS §4.1
& read 4.2
 Hand in HW6 [details above], if
you did not do so on Friday
 Hand in BI16 (on an idea from Friday's class or readings)
 ASE5 is not due today  in fact, no ASE is due this
week; if you did one before seeing this notice, save it and use it in
the future.
 Some content we discussed, terms defined:
 more on the ideas of sample spaces, events, and
probability models
 finite probability models, such as [fair]
coins and [fair] dice
 :
 Reread LDLoS
§4.2
 Some content we discussed, terms defined:
 mutually exclusive is a synonym of disjoint
 the general rule for computing $P(A\cup B)$, whether or not the
events $A$ and $B$ are disjoint
 starting conditional probability, including its formal
definition, computing examples, etc.
 two events being independent
 Hand in BI17 (on an idea from Monday's class or readings)
 :
 Reread LDLoS
§4.2 & read
§4.3.1
 Some content we discussed, terms defined:
 more examples of turning statements in English into formulæ
with events, and computing their probabilities.
 more discussion of the difference (they're completely different!)
between disjoint and independent, and the different
uses they have
 very start of the idea of a random variables [RVs]
 Hand in BI18 (on an idea from Wednesday's class or readings)
 Hand in HW7: problems 4.{4, 5, 6} starting on
this page of LDLoS;
if you want a little extra time, this could come in on Monday without
any penalty
 Quiz 5 was handed out today — if you didn't pick up a
copy in class, email your instructor and you will get a PDF by return
email.
Week 8
 :
 Read LDLoS §4.3.1,
§4.3.2, &
§4.3.3
 Some content we discussed, terms defined:
 random variables [RVs]
 the [probability] distribution of a [discrete]
random variable
 the expectation of a [discrete] random variable
 Hand in BI19 (on an idea from Friday's class or readings)
 Hand in HW7, if you didn't hand it in on Friday
 Hand in Quiz 5, which was handed out in class on Friday
— if you didn't pick up a copy in class, email your instructor
and you will get a PDF by return email.
 Hand in ASE5 on something from our unit on Probabily Theory.
Search in your favorite search engine for words like {\it probability,
likelihood, odds, risk, etc.} ... although such searches tend to turn
up mostly educational web pages (which are not allowed for ASEs, as
you surely remember). But if you add some other terms 
like odds of winning the lottery or probability of an
earthquake  then you might find somethings.
Or else search just on one, reputable site (put "site:nytimes.com,"
for example, to restrict a search to that site) for more general words.
Here are the results of some such searches:
Feel free to use any of those, or else to find you own. If you have any
doubts as to whether it is a potentially good source for an ASE, email
your instructor with a link and you will get a quick response.
 :
 Reread LDLoS §4.3.1,
§4.3.2, &
§4.3.3
 Some content we discussed, terms defined:
 mostly working through recent terms/ideas even more
 discussion of what makes an RV either discrete or
continuous
 Hand in BI20 (on an idea from Monday's class or readings)
 :
 Read LDLoS §4.3.4 &
§4.3.5
 Some content we discussed, terms defined:
 [probability] density functions for continuous RVs
 the uniform distribution on an interval $[x_{min},x_{max}]$
 the Normal distribution with mean $\mu$ and standard
deviation $\sigma$
 the standard Normal distribution
 Hand in BI21 (on an idea from Wednesday's class or readings)
 Quiz 6 today [on material from last Friday to this Wednesday]
 No homework due today: it will instead be due on Monday
Week 9
 :
 Reread §4.3.5
 Some content we discussed, terms defined:
 standardizing a nonstandard Normal RV
 the 689599.7 Rule for Normal RVs
 using electronic tools to compute Normal probabilities.
 Hand in BI22 (on an idea from Friday's class or readings)
 No ASE due today — in fact, none due this week. Although
there will be one due after Spring Break, so if you think you will be
unable to work at all over the break, it might make sense to start
that ASE now — maybe just going as far as finding a source and,
if you are worried about whether it will make a good ASE, asking your
instructor.
 Hand in HW8: problems 4.{7, 8, 9, 10} starting on
this page of LDLoS
 :
 Reread §4.3.5
 Review for Test II. See this review sheet.
 Hand in HW9, which is just problem 4.11 on
this page of LDLoS
 Hand in BI23 (on an idea from Monday's class or readings)
 :
 Test II in class today. Make sure you are comfortable with
the material outlined on this review sheet.
Don't forget your calculator, or other favorite electronic
device, if you use one!
 Today [Friday] is the last day to withdraw (with a W) from
classes.
Week 10
 Spring Break! No classes, of course.
Week 11
 :
 Test II postmortem.
 ASE6 was postponed to Wednesday, to give you more time to
concentrate on thinking through Test II and doing excellent redos.
 :
 Read LDLoS
Introduction to Chapter 5, and
§5.1
 Some content we discussed, terms defined:
 population parameter
 representative
 bias, against which our strongest weapon is
randomness
 voluntary sample bias
 simple random sample [SRS]
 Hand in BI24. This is a special one: please write a paragraph
about how you think Test II went for you. Are you perfectly content
with how it turned out? If not, what do you think was the cause of the
trouble? And what can you do next time to make things better? Do you
think the ideas you talked about in BI14 for test improvement
were effective  were you actually able to use them?
 Hand in ASE6. Please try to find something which mentions
or uses Normal distributions [which is sometimes called a
"bell[shaped] curve"], uniformly distributed, or maybe
even some article which talks about the uses of randomness or
random numbers in modern science or computers ‐ e.g.,
sometimes this is called "using Monte Carlo methods." For this
ASE only, and only if you talk about one of these last few topics, you
may write a brief summary of something which is mostly an educational
source, and which therefore does not have live data, variables,
population, etc. Contact your instructor if you have any
concerns about what you you intend to do.
 :
 Reread LDLoS §5.1 and
read LDLoS §5.2 and
 Some content we discussed, terms defined:
 sample statistic
 The Law of Large Numbers [LoLNs]
 general strategies in simple surveys:
 get as big a sample as possible
 e.g., to take advantage of the LoLNs
 pick a good statistic
 e.g., the LoLNs says that $\overline{x}$
is a good statistic for $\mu$
 also, make sure survey questions are not misleading
 use randomness
 always aim for the [nearly impossible] SRS
 wording effects
 always, for heaven's sake, avoid voluntary samples
 observational studies vs experiments [and
relationship to inferences about causality]
 control group
 confounding
 lurking variable
 placebo effect, placebo
The British doctor Ben Goldacre has written and spoken in
very informative and entertaining ways about the placebo effect.
His books are
and some good talks of his you can find online are
 Hand in BI25 (on an idea from Wednesday's class or readings)
 Hand in Test II revisions, if you like.
 No Quiz or HW homework due today. But keep an eye out
for what is due and what will be happening in class on Monday.
Week 12
 :
 Reread LDLoS §5.2 and
read LDLoS §5.3
 Some content we discussed, terms defined:
 blind, doubleblind
 finalizing discussion of the gold standard for studies involving
human subjects: a randomized,
[placebo]controlled trial, [RCT]
 starting experimental ethics — some examples of what not
to do:
 the Nazi doctors
 the Tuskegee and Guatemalan Syphilis Experiments
 the Stanford Prison Experiment
 the Milgram "Obedience to Authority" Experiment
 Hand in BI26 (on an idea from Friday's class or readings)
 :
 Reread LDLoS §5.3
 Some content we discussed, terms defined:
 One checklist of ethical guidelines would be
 always get informed consent (Caution: this is less
obvious than it seems!)
 do no harm to the test subjects
 always get independent oversight, which often
consists of the IRB and/or the FDA
 preserve test subjects' confidentiality by default
and only break it with their prior permission.
 Hand in BI27 (on an idea from Monday's class or readings)
 :
 Reread LDLoS §5.3 and
read LDLoS Introduction to Part
3, LDLoS Introduction to
Chapter 6, and §6.1
 Some content we discussed, terms defined:
 the Central Limit Theorem [CLT]
 Hand in BI28 (on an idea from Wednesday's class or readings)
 Hand in HW10: problems 5.{1, 2, 3, 4} starting on
this page of LDLoS
 Quiz 7 today [on any new material since Spring Break]
Week 13
 :
 Hand in ASE7, which is a special one: read
this article and any other sources you find on the same subject which are
useful (such as the research report in the Proceedings of the
National Academy of Sciences to which there is a link in that first
article), and then do as detailed an ASE as you can on this
topic, containing all the usual parts. Also include a section in
this ASE discussing the ethics of this study. Use
the ethical criteria we discussed in class and which are in the readings
from last week. As a consequence, this ASE will probably be a
fair bit longer than usual.
 Reread LDLoS §6.1 and
read §6.2 and
 Some content we discussed, terms defined:
 general idea of a confidence interval for the mean of a
quantitative RV
 Hand in BI29 (on an idea from Friday's class or readings)
 :
 Reread LDLoS §6.2
 Some content we discussed, terms defined:
 formulæ for confidence intervals for means
 the meaning of the confidence level of a confidence
interval
 Hand in BI30 (on an idea from Monday's class or readings)
 :
 Quiz 8 [on material from last Friday to this Wednesday]
handed out today, due Monday
 Reread LDLoS §6.2 and
read §6.3 and
 Some content we discussed, terms defined:
 a bit more on the CLT and CIs
 general idea of a hypothesis test for the mean of a
quantitative RV
 Hand in HW11: problems 6.{1, 2, 3} starting on
this page of LDLoS. Or, if you
like, it may be handed in on Monday.
 Hand in BI31 (on an idea from Wednesday's class or readings)
Week 14
 :
 Reread LDLoS §6.3
 No ASE due today. Next week, though, after Test III....
 Quiz 8 due today.
 Hand in HW11 due today, if you didn't hand it in last Friday.
 Some content we discussed, terms defined:
 formulæ for hypothesis tests for means
 the meaning of the $p$value of a hypothesis test
 Hand in BI32 (on an idea from Friday's class or readings)
 :
 Quiz 9 today [on material from last Friday to this Monday]
 Reread LDLoS §6.3
 Some content we discussed, terms defined:
 type I error
 caution for hypothesis testing, particularly about interpreting
the $p$value
 Hand in HW12: problems 6.{4, 5, 6} starting on
this page of LDLoS
 Hand in BI33 (on an idea from Monday's class or readings)
 :
 Going over lots of recent homeworks, ASEs, and quizzes.
 Hand in BI34 (on an idea from Wednesday's class or readings)
 Review for Test III. See this review
sheet.
Week 15
 :
 :
 Hand in ASE8. Three options for this one:
 Find one about a confidence interval for a population mean or
average (same thing). It can help to look for the phrase "margin
of error," sometimes called "sampling error" in the press. Be
careful not to get a source which is about a confidence
interval for a percentage (like election data often is, for
example), since that is not a CI for a mean (means are not
percentages).
 Find one which is about a hypothesis test, as we have
done in this class. Look for "$p$value", "null/alternative
hypothesis," other other such term[s].
 Otherwise, you can just do a "freerange" ASE: pick a topic that
interests you, a nice article or webpage or whatever, which has a
clear bit of statistical content, and write up an ASE as we've been
doing all semester. [So be sure to clearly talk about the
population, variable[s], parameter[s], sample, methods,
etc.] If you go this route, please make sure you find a
one with rather a lot of interesting statistical content for which
you can show off all of your knowledge. Then make sure you do
show it off!
 Test III postmortem.
 :
 Hand in Test III revisions, if you like.
 Review for Final Exam. See
this review sheet.
 Hand in BI35, a special one: what do you intend to do for the
next few days to enable you to do the best you possibly can on the
final exam for this class? Be specific!
Week 16
 Exam week, no classes.
 :
 :
 No on campus office hours today  but contact your instructor any
time by email for prompt help!
 :
 Extra Exam Week office hours, for students who still want to talk
about the course, from 24pm.
 :
 IF YOU ARE IN THE MWF 9:0510:00AM SECTION, THEN YOUR
[COMPREHENSIVE] FINAL EXAM IS IN OUR USUAL CLASSROOM TODAY FROM
810:20AM. Don't forget to bring your calculator or other
favorite electronic device. You may also bring other materials to
consult during the test. See the final review
sheet for other information about the final.