- Articles
- Books
- Talks
- IBM Research Reports and European Union project deliverables
- Articles in Progress
- Patents

**Ivanka's Syllabus**- Appeared in the
**Inside Digital Learning**newsletter of**Inside Higher Ed**on 11 October 2017; © 2017 Jonathan A. Poritz [maybe? see Note_{1}, below, for discussion]. **Concluding paragraph:**The AAUP has long maintained -- and the success of American higher education gives weight to this assertion -- that instructors' expertise offers unique insight from which they can design curricula to benefit students. This implies that teacher autonomy and control of ed tech should have absolute priority. These examples show the benefits of this approach and the dangers of abandoning it.- The official version can be found on the IHE website, here.
- Here is a local copy: PDF — 5.8M

- Appeared in the
**Academic Governance on the Virtual Shop Floor**- With Jonathan Rees
- Appeared in the May/June 2017 issue of
*Academe: Magazine of the AAUP*; © 2017 American Association of University Professors **Conclusion:**It is sometimes said that technology is neutral. Whether it is good or evil depends on how it's used. Edward R. Murrow could have been speaking of the Internet and not television when he said:"This instrument can teach, it can illuminate; yes, and even, it can inspire. But it can do so only to the extent that humans are determined to use it to those ends. Otherwise, it's nothing but wires and lights in a box. There is a great and perhaps decisive battle to be fought against ignorance, intolerance and indifference. This weapon of television could be useful."

Had he known about modern information technology, Murrow might have added surveillance to the three adversaries he named in the great battle. Certainly we practitioners must have a share in governing how technology is used in our colleges and universities. We must do the hard work of educating ourselves and our students in how to use this tool for illumination and freedom. Otherwise, as Murrow said at the beginning of that famous speech, "this just might do nobody any good."

Thanks to free software, faculty can even own the means of digital education production if they put their minds to it. While the echoes of Marx and Engels in this suggestion may make some people uncomfortable, faculty taking control of the tools we use in our digital labor is our best bet for preserving our role in academic governance and the quality of education on the emerging virtual academic shop floor. The advantages of choosing this path far outweigh any individual fears of learning how to operate new technologies or in departing from the traditional ways in which some of us have chosen to teach. The only things we have to lose are our virtual chains. At the same time, we have a whole new world to win.

- The official version is on the AAUP website, here.
- Here is a local copy: PDF — 14M
- And here is a post Rees and I made on the AAUP's Academe Blog related to our article:

**The Tenured IT Expert? Technology experts should have the academic freedom to speak on behalf of what's best for education, not just a university's bottom line.**- Appeared in the
**Views**section of**Inside Higher Ed**on 20 September 2016; © 2016 Jonathan A. Poritz and Jonathan Rees. **Concluding paragraph:**Without extending tenure to IT professionals, campuses will continue to spend money on expensive commercial IT systems and the inferior ed-tech tools that generally come with them. Moreover, the people who tend those systems will not be the kind of innovative individuals that institutions generally try to hire for positions on their regular faculty. Since IT professionals will play an ever-growing role in educational decision making in our increasingly wired campuses, giving them the same protections as regular faculty members is both economical and logical. To do otherwise is to risk forfeiting all the educational benefits that technology can bring.- The official version can be found on the IHE website, here.
- A local copy is here: PDF — 61K

- Appeared in the
**Open Access to Technology: Shared Governance of the Academy's Virtual Worlds**- Appeared as
**Journal of Academic Freedom 5**(2014); © 2014 American Association of University Professors **Abstract:**Information technology (IT) — hardware, software, and networks — is enormously important in the daily lives of everyone on college and university campuses. Yet decisions about academic IT are usually made by a small administrative team with almost no faculty input. This can lead to policies and priorities which poorly serve pedagogical and scholarly needs, and is often actually an inversion of the traditional academic division of responsibilities as set out, for example, in the*1966 AAUP Statement on Government of Colleges and Universities*.This essay examines some of the assumptions and traditions behind the IT governance structure currently prevalent on so many campuses and suggest some different perspectives on these issues. These alternative ideas then suggest a new approach — similar to, and in fact supporting, the Open Access movement for scholarly products but centered on the openness of the IT infrastructures themselves of college and universities.

To clarify the foundations of this new model of shared IT governance in academia, this essay states two important new principles: the principle of academic network freedom and the rinciple of shared academic network governance. These principles can clarify the appropriate roles of the various actors in university governance and give guidance about how to implement new governance models.

- The official version can be found on the AAUP's website, here.
- A local copy is hosted here: PDF — 544K

- Appeared as
**Universal Gates in Other Universes**- Appeared in G.W. Dueck and D.M. Miller (Eds.): RC 2013, LNCS 7948, pp. 155-167; © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013
**Abstract:**I describe a new formalization for computation which is similar to traditional circuit models but which depends upon the choice of a family of [semi]groups — essentially, a choice of the structure group of the universe of the computation. Choosing the symmetric groups results in the reversible version of classical computation; the unitary groups give quantum computation. Other groups can result in models which are stronger or weaker than the traditional models, or are hybrids of classical and quantum computation.One particular example, built out of the semigroup of doubly stochastic matrices, yields classical but probabilistic computation, helping explain why probabilistic computation can be so fast. Another example is a smaller and entirely $\RR$eal version of the quantum one which uses a (real) rotation matrix in place of the (complex, unitary) Hadamard gate to create algorithms which are exponentially faster than classical ones.

I also articulate a conjecture which would help explain the different powers of these different types of computation, and point to many new avenues of investigation permitted by this model.

- The final publication is available at link.springer.com
- Here is my personal version: PDF — 256K

**Sharing the Power Over, and the Responsibility for, Information Technology Decisions in Academia**- Presented at the October AAUP Shared Governance Conference
**Abstract:**Information technology (IT) — hardware, software, and networks — is enormously important in the daily lives of everyone on university campuses. Yet decisions about academic IT are usually made by a small administrative team with almost no faculty input. This can lead to policies and priorities which poorly serve pedagogical and scholarly needs, and is a clear violation of the*AAUP Statement on Government of Colleges and Universities*, hence violating academic freedom. I propose here a different model of shared IT governance in academia and suggest that the first step towards realizing this new model is for faculty to educate itself a little about real IT alternatives.- Here (PDF — 192K) is the version I shared at the conference.

**Information Technology Wants to Be Free**- Appeared in the September/October 2012 issue of
*Academe: Magazine of the AAUP*; the AAUP released it under a CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 US licence **Abstract:**The free-software and open-source communities, dedicated to the open exchange of research and to the idea that knowledge is a public good, are the natural allies of academic faculty.- This is the official web version.
- While this is the official version as it appeared in print.
- And here are two guest posts I made on the AAUP's Academe Blog related to my article:
- And here is a version with my own typesetting, more graphics, and an extra paragraph of text: PDF — 820K

- Appeared in the September/October 2012 issue of
**On entropy-preserving stochastic averages**- With Alan Poritz
- Appeared as
**Linear Algebra and Its Applications 434(6)**1425-1443 (2010); © 2010 Elsevier Inc **Abstract:**When an $n\times n$ doubly stochastic matrix $A$ acts on $\RR^n$ on the left as a linear transformation and $P$ is an $n$-long probability vector, we refer to the new probability vector $AP$ as the*stochastic average*of the pair $(A,P)$. Let $\boldsymbol{\Gamma}_n$ denote the set of pairs $(A,P)$ whose stochastic average preserves the entropy of $P$: $H(AP)=H(P)$. $\boldsymbol{\Gamma}_n$ is a subset of $\mathbf{B}_n\times\boldsymbol{\Sigma}_n$ where $\mathbf{B}_n$ is the Birkhoff polytope and $\boldsymbol{\Sigma}_n$ is the probability simplex.We characterize $\boldsymbol{\Gamma}_n$ and determine its geometry, topology, and combinatorial structure. For example, we find that $(A,P)\in\boldsymbol{\Gamma}_n$ if and only if $A^tAP=P$. We show that for any $n$, $\boldsymbol{\Gamma}_n$ is a connected set, and is in fact piecewise-linearly contractible in $\mathbf{B}_n\times\boldsymbol{\Sigma}_n$. We exhibit two finite decompositions of $\boldsymbol{\Gamma}_n$. We derive the geometry of the fibers $(A,\cdot)$ and $(\cdot,P)$ of $\boldsymbol{\Gamma}_n$. $\boldsymbol{\Gamma}_3$ is worked out in detail. Our analysis exploits the convexity of $x\log x$ and the structure of an efficiently computable bipartite graph that we associate to each ds-matrix. This graph also lets us represent such a matrix in a permutation-equivalent, block diagonal form where each block is doubly stochastic and fully indecomposable.

- The definitive version is available at LAA's web site or through the doi:10.1016/j.laa.2010.10.014
- The text of the following is the corrected, final (published) version,
however without the journal's formatting:

PDF — 256K

**Who searches the searchers? community privacy in the age of monolithic search engines**- Appeared as
**The Information Society 23(5)**383-389 (2007); © 2007 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC **Abstract:**Privacy has largely been equated with every individual's right to privacy. Accordingly, current efforts to protect privacy on the Internet have sought anonymity by breaking, where possible, links with personally identifiable information (PII) — all uses of aggregated data stripped of PII are considered legitimate. This article argues that we need to use a broader concept, general or group identifying information (GII), because even aggregated data stripped of PII violate privacy at the community level. The search engine companies, or anyone else with access to their log files, can use these data to generate a moment-by-moment view of what is on the collective mind. Such a view can be used in a variety of ways, some with deep economic and even political impact. In order to frame this discussion, it is necessary to examine some of the realities of the search engine-mediated associative interface to the World Wide Web. While this interface has enormous benefits for the networked world, it also fundamentally changes a number of issues underlying various current debates about Internet governance.- PDF — 184K

- Appeared as
**Intrusion-Tolerant Middleware: The Road to Automatic Security**- With Christian Cachin, Yves Deswarte, Nuno Neves, David Powell, Robert Stroud, Paulo Verissimo, and Ian Welch
- Appeared as
**IEEE Security & Privacy 4**(2006) 54-62; © 2006 IEEE **Abstract:**The pervasive interconnection of systems throughout the world has given computer services a significant socioeconomic value that both accidental faults and malicious activity can affect. The classical approach to security has mostly consisted of trying to prevent bad things from happening–by developing systems without vulnerabilities, for example, or by detecting attacks and intrusions and deploying ad hoc countermeasures before any part of the system is damaged. But what if we could address both faults and attacks in a seamless manner, through a common approach to security and dependability? This is the proposal of*intrusion tolerance*, which assumes that- systems remain somewhat faulty or vulnerable;
- attacks on components will sometimes be successful; and
- automatic mechanisms ensure that the overall system nevertheless remains secure and operational.

*MAFTIA (Malicious-and Accidental-Fault Tolerance for Internet Applications)*set out to develop an architecture and a comprehensive set of mechanisms and protocols for tolerating both accidental faults and malicious attacks in complex systems. Here, we report some of the advances made by the several teams involved in this project, which brought together international expertise in the areas of information security and fault tolerance.- ps.gz — 660K
- PDF — 172K

**Trust[ed| in] computing, signed code, and the heat death of the Internet**- Appeared at the
**2nd ACM SAC TRECK Track**, April 2006. © ACM, (2006) **Abstract:**The*Trusted Computing Group*(TCG) is an industry consortium which has invested in the design of a small piece of hardware (roughly a smartcard), called a*Trusted Platform Module*(TPM), and associated APIs and protocols which are supposed to help increase the reliability of TPM-endowed computing platforms (*trusted platforms*). The TCG envisions that boot loaders, OSes and applications programs on trusted platforms will all collaborate in building a cryptographic hash chain which represents the current execution state of the platform, and which resides on the TPM. Remote sites can then verify that the platform in question is ``in a trusted state'' by requesting the TPM to produce a signed data blob containing the value of this hash chain, which can then be compared against a library of recognized (``trusted'') values; this process is called*remote attestation*, and the whole picture is sometimes referred to as*integrity-based computing*(IBC).We argue that there is a fundamental gap between the stated goals of the TCG's IBC and the central technology that is intended to achieve these goals, which gap is simply that remote attestation asks the attesting platform to answer

**the wrong question**— the platform is not attesting to its**security state**, but rather to its**execution state**, and this underlies all of the troublesome use cases, as well as a number of the practical difficulties, of the TCG world-view. One response to this is to replace standard TCG attestation with*property-based attestation*(PBA), which places the emphasis on deriving security properties from (potentially) elaborate trust models and conditional statements of security property dependencies. Herein the central rôle for IBC of trust and deriving consequences from precise trust models becomes clear.Finally, we claim that the TCG's own remote attestation is most properly viewed in fact as a form of PBA, with a certain simple trust model and database of security properties. From this point of view, it becomes clear that IBC can have a much less restrictive range of applications than envisioned merely by the TCG. In fact, with the right ``trust infrastructure'' and sufficiently open software using and relying upon this infrastructure, IBC could actually realize some of the portentous early promises of the TCG for truly increasing the reliability of individual users' platforms and pushing back the apocalyptic rise of malware, especially if platforms and OSes virtualize and enforce some kind of signed code contracts.

- This (ps.gz — 88K; PDF — 92K) is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of ACM for your personal use. Not for redistribution. The definitive version is published by the ACM.

- Appeared at the
**Hash woes**- With Morton Swimmer
- Appeared as
**Virus Bulletin**October, 2004, 14-16; © 2004 Virus Bulletin, Ltd. **Abstract:**In a rump session of the August 2004 Crypto conference, where attendees have the chance to give informal (non-refereed) presentations of works in progress, a group of Chinese researchers demonstrated flaws in a whole set of hash functions and the entire crypto community was abuzz. In this article, we will clarify the situation and draw lessons from this incident.- PDF — 432K

**Secure intrusion-tolerant replication on the Internet**- With Christian Cachin
- Appeared in
**Proceedings of the International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks (DSN-2002)**(2002) 167-176; © 2002 IEEE **Abstract:**This paper describes a*Secure INtrusion-Tolerant Replication Architecture (SINTRA)*for coordination in asynchronous networks subject to Byzantine faults. SINTRA supplies a number of group communication primitives, such as binary and multi-valute Byzantine agreement, reliable and consistent broadcast, and an atomic broadcast channel. Atomic broadcast immediately provides secure state-machine replication. The protocols are designed for an asynchronous wide-area network, such as the Internet, where messages may be delayed indefinitely, the servers do not have acces to a common clock, and up to one third of the servers may fail in potentially malicious ways. Security is achieved trhough the use of threshold public-key cryptography, in particular through a cryptographic common coin based on the Diffie-Hellman problem that underlies the randomized protocols in SINTRA. The implementation of SINTRA in Java is described and timing measurements are given for a test-bed of servers distributed over three continents. They show that extensive use of public-key cryptography does not impose a large overhead for coordination in wide-area networks.- ps.gz — 76K
- PDF — 168K

**Social preferences and price cap regulation**- With Alberto Iozzi and Edilio Valentini
- Appeared as
**Journal of Public Economic Theory 4**(2002) 93-112; © 2002 Blackwell Publishers - The definitive version is available at www.blackwell-synergy.com
**Abstract:**This paper analyses the allocative properties of price cap regulation under a very general hypothesis on the nature of society's preferences. We propose a generalised form of price cap formula (GPC) and we show that it ensures the convergence to optimal (second best) prices in the long-run equilibrium for virtually any form of the welfare function. In particular, we show that the GPC guarantees that the social welfare increases over time and converges to a long run equilibrium value which is socially optimal, given the level of profits obtained by the regulated firm in equilibrium. Hence, the result of the convergence to Ramsey prices of Laspeyres-type price cap regulation is a particular instance of our more general result. The generalisation of the price cap mechanism we propose does not substantially alter the simplicity typical of traditional price cap schemes nor does it impose much higher informational requirements on the regulator's side. To substantiate this argument, we provide an explicit and relatively easy to calculate and implement price cap formula for a distributionally weighted utilitarian welfare functions, as proposed by Feldstein (1972a).- ps.gz — 242K
- PDF — 127K

**Around polygons in $\RR^3$ and $S^3$**- With John J. Millson
- Appeared as
**Communications in Mathematical Physics 218**(2001) 315-331; © 2001 Springer-Verlag - The original publication is available at www.springerlink.com
**Abstract:**We survey certain moduli spaces in low dimensions and some of the geometric structures that they carry, and then construct identifications among all of these spaces. In particular, we identify the moduli spaces of polygons in $\RR^3$ and $S^3$, the moduli space of restricted representations of the fundamental group of a punctured 2-sphere, the moduli space of flat connections on a punctured sphere, the moduli space of parabolic bundles on a sphere, the moduli space of weighted points on $\CC\PP^1$ and the symplectic quotient of $SO(3)$ acting diagonally on $(S^2)^n$. All of these spaces depend upon parameters and some of the above identifications require the parameters to be small. One consequence of this work is that these spaces are all biholomorphic with respect to the most natural complext structures they can each be given.- ps.gz — 119K
- PDF — 143K

**The moduli space of boundary compactifications of $SL(2,\RR)$**- With Alessandra Iozzi
- Appeared as
**Geometriae Dedicata 76**(1999) 65-79; © 1999 Kluwer Academic Publishers - The original publication is available at www.springerlink.com
**Abstract:**In an earlier paper, the authors introduced the notion of a*boundary compactification*of $SL(2,\RR)$ and $SL(2,\CC)$, a normal projective embedding of $PSL_2$ arising as the Zariski closure of an orbit in $(\PP^1)^n$ under the diagonal action of $SL_2$. Here the moduli space of such boundary compactifications of $SL(2,\RR)$ is shown to be a contractible hyperbolic orbifold, by using the Schwarz-Christoffel transformation to identify it with a quotient of the moduli space of equi-angular planar polygons.- ps.gz — 527K
- PDF — 546K

**Boundary compactifications of $SL(2,\RR)$ and $SL(2,\CC)$**- With Alessandra Iozzi
- Appeared as
**Forum Mathematicum 11**(1999) 385-397; © 1999 de Gruyter **Abstract:**We construct a class of normal projective embeddings of $PSL(2,k)$, for $k=\RR$ and $\CC$, which we call*boundary compactifications of $SL(2,k)$*. These arise essentially as the Zariski closures of orbits in $(\PP^1_k)^n$ under the diagonal action of $SL(2,k)$. In addition, we determine precisely when our examples can be $SL(2,k)$-homeomorphic, showing that the resulting deformation space is a countable union of positive-dimensional families.- ps.gz — 176K
- PDF — 153K

**Ford and Dirichlet domains for cyclic subgroups of $PSL(2,\CC)$ acting on $H^3_\RR$ and $\partial H^3_\RR$**- With Todd Drumm
- First published in
**Conformal Geometry and Dynamics 3**(1999) 116-150; © 1999 American Mathematical Society - Electronic version available at the AMS web site — check it out, it's interactive!
**Abstract:**Let $\Gamma$ be a cyclic subgroup of $PSL_2(\CC)$ generated by a loxodromic element. The Ford and Dirichlet fundamental domains for the action of $\Gamma$ on $\HH^3_\RR$ are the complements of configurations of half-balls centered on the plane at infinity $\partial\HH^3_\RR$. Jørgensen (*On cyclic groups of Möbius transformations,*Math. Scand.**33**(1973), 250-260) proved that the boundary of the intersection of the Ford fundamental domain with $\partial\HH^3_\RR$ always consists of either two, four or six circular arcs and stated that an arbitrarily large number of hemispheres could contribute faces to the Ford domain in the interior of $\HH^3_\RR$. We give new proofs of Jørgensen's results, prove analogous facts for Dirichlet domains and for Ford and Dirichlet domains in the interior of $\HH^3_\RR$, and give a complete decomposition of the parameter space by the combinatorial type of the corresponding fundamental domain.- ps.gz — 3812K
- PDF — 651K

**Parabolic vector bundles and Hermitian-Yang-Mills connections over a Riemann surface**- Appeared as
**International Journal of Mathematics 4**(1993) 467-501; © 1993 World Scientific Publishing Company **Abstract:**We study a certain moduli space of irreducible Hermitian-Yang-Mills connections on a unitary vector bundle over a punctured Riemann surface. The connections used have non-trivial holonomy around the punctures lying in fixed conjugacy classes of $U(n)$ and differ from each other by elements of a weighted Sobolev space; these connections give rise to parabolic bundles in the sense of Mehta and Seshadri. We show in fact that the moduli space of stable parabolic bundles can be identified with our moduli space of HYM connections, by proving that every stable bundle admits a unique unitary gauge orbit of Hermitian-Yang-Mills connections.- Here is an electronic version of an article with doi:10.1142/S0129167X9300025X
- dvi.gz — 72K
- ps.gz — 129K

- Appeared as

**Lies, Damned Lies, or Statistics: How to Tell the Truth with Statistics**

- Available for download and remix, under a Creative Commons CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 US licence. First used for Math 156: Introduction to Statistics at Colorado State University-Pueblo in the spring of 2017.
- pdf — 1.8MB
- source code can be found here
**Release Notes**This is a first draft of a free (as in speech, not as in beer, [**Sta02**]) (although it is free as in beer as well) textbook for a one-semester, undergraduate statistics course. It was used for Math 156 at Colorado State University-Pueblo in the spring semester of 2017.Thanks are hereby offered to the students in that class who offered many useful suggestions and found numerous typos. In particular, Julie Berogan has an eagle eye, and found a nearly uncountably infinite number of mistakes, both small and large — thank you!

This work is released under a

**CC BY-SA 4.0**license, which allows anyone who is interested to**share**(copy and redistribute in any medium or format) and**adapt**(remix, transform, and build upon this work for any purpose, even commercially). These rights cannot be revoked, so long as users follow the license terms, which require**attribution**(giving appropriate credit, linking to the license, and indicating if changes were made) to be given and**share-alike**(if you remix or transform this work, you must distribute your contributions under the same license as this one) imposed. See`creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0`for all the details.This version: 13 May 2017 23:04MDT.

Jonathan A. Poritz

Spring Semester, 2017

Pueblo, CO, USA

**Contents**Release Notes

Preface

**Part 1. Descriptive Statistics**

Chapter 1. One-Variable Statistics: Basics

1.1 Terminology: Individuals/Population/Variables/Samples

1.2 Visual Representation of Data, I: Categorical Variables

1.2.1 Bar Charts I: Frequency Charts

1.2.2 Bar Charts II: Relative Frequency Charts

1.2.3 Bar Charts III: Cautions

1.2.4 Pie Charts

1.3 Visual Representation of Data, II: Quantitative Variables

1.3.1 Stem-and-leaf Plots

1.3.2 [Frequency] Histograms

1.3.3 [Relative Frequency] Histograms

1.3.4 How to Talk About Histograms

1.4 Numerical Descriptions of Data, I: Measures of the Center

1.4.1 Mode

1.4.2 Mean

1.4.3 Median

1.4.4 Strengths and Weaknesses of These Measures of Central Tendency

1.5 Numerical Descriptions of Data, II: Measures of Spread

1.5.1 Range

1.5.2 Quartiles and the*IQR*

1.5.3 Variance and Standard Deviation

1.5.4 Strengths and Weaknesses of These Measures of Spread

1.5.5 A Formal Definition of Outliers – the 1.5*IQR*Rule

1.5.6 The Five-Number Summary and Boxplots

Exercises

Chapter 2. Bi-variate Statistics: Basics

2.1 Terminology: Explanatory/Response or Independent/Dependent

2.2 Scatterplots

2.3 Correlation

Exercises

Chapter 3. Linear Regression

3.1 The Least Squares Regression Line

3.2 Applications and Interpretations of LSRLs

3.3 Cautions

3.3.1 Sensitivity to Outliers

3.3.2 Causation

3.3.3 Extrapolation

3.3.4 Simpson's Paradox

Exercises

**Part 2. Good Data**

Chapter 4. Probability Theory

4.1 Definitions for Probability

4.1.1 Sample Spaces, Set Operations, and Probability Models

4.1.2 Venn Diagrams

4.1.3 Finite Probability Models

4.2 Conditional Probability

4.3 Random Variables

4.3.1 Definition and First Examples

4.3.2 Distributions for Discrete RVs

4.3.3 Expectation for Discrete RVs

4.3.4 Density Functions for Continuous RVs

4.3.5 The Normal Distribution

Exercises

Chapter 5. Bringing Home the Data

5.1 Studies of a Population Parameter

5.2 Studies of Causality

5.2.1 Control Groups

5.2.2 Human-Subject Experiments: The*Placebo Effect*

5.2.3 Blinding

5.2.4 Combining it all: RCTs

5.2.5 Confounded Lurking Variables

5.3 Experimental Ethics

5.3.1 "Do No Harm"

5.3.2 Informed Consent

5.3.3 Confidentiality

5.3.4 External Oversight [IRB]

Exercises

**Part 3. Inferential Statistics**

Chapter 6. Basic Inferences

6.1 The Central Limit Theorem

6.2 Basic Confidence Intervals

6.2.1 Cautions

6.3 Basic Hypothesis Testing

6.3.1 The Formal Steps of Hypothesis Testing

6.3.2 How Small is Small Enough, for*p*-values?

6.3.3 Calculations for Hypothesis Testing of Population Means

6.3.4 Cautions

Exercises

Bibliography

Index

**Preface**Mark Twain's autobiography [**TNA10**] modestly questions his own reporting of the numbers of hours per day he sat down to write, and of the number of words he wrote in that time, saying

[emphasis added]*Figures often beguile me, particularly when I have the arranging of them myself; in which case the remark attributed to Disraeli would often apply with justice and force:*

**"There are three kinds of lies: lies, damned lies, and statistics."**Here Twain gives credit for this pithy tripartite classification of lies to Benjamin Disraeli, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom in 1868 (under Queen Victoria), although modern scholars find no evidence that Disraeli was the actual originator of the phrase. But whoever actually deserves credit for the phrase, it does seem that statistics are often used to conceal the truth, rather than to reveal it. So much so, for example, that the wonderful book

**How to Lie with Statistics**[**Huf93**], by Darrell Huff, gives many, many examples of misused statistics, and yet merely scratches the surface.We contend, however, that statistics are not a type of lie, but rather, when used carefully, are an

*alternative*to lying. For this reason, we use "or" in the title of this book, where Twain/Disraeli used "and," to underline how we are thinking of statistics, correctly applied, as standing in opposition to lies and damned lies.But why use such a complicated method of telling the truth as statistics, rather than, say, telling a good story or painting a moving picture? The answer, we believe, is simply that there are many concrete, specific questions that humans have about the world which are best answered by carefully collecting some data and using a modest amount of mathematics and a fair bit of logic to analyze them. The thing about the Scientific Method is that it just seems to work. So why not learn how to use it?

Learning better techniques of critical thinking seems particularly important at this moment of history when our politics in the United States (and elsewhere) are so divisive, and different parties cannot agree about the most basic facts. A lot of commentators from all parts of the political spectrum have speculated about the impact of so-called

*fake news*on the outcomes of recent recent elections and other political debates. It is therefore the goal of this book to help you learn**How to Tell the Truth with Statistics**and, therefore, how to tell when others are telling the truth ... or are faking their "news."

**Education is Not an App: The future of university teaching in the Internet age**

- With Jonathan Rees, colleague, historian, and author of the marvelous blog More or Less Bunk. [And, coincidentally, fellow graduate of Princeton High School.]
**Publisher's Description:**Whilst much has been written about the doors that technology can open for students, less has been said about its impact on teachers and professors. Although technology undoubtedly brings with it huge opportunities within higher education, there is also the fear that it will have a negative effect both on faculty and on teaching standards.Education Is Not an App offers a bold and provocative analysis of the economic context within which educational technology is being implemented, not least the financial problems currently facing higher education institutions around the world. The book emphasizes the issue of control as being a key factor in whether educational technology is used for good or bad purposes, arguing that technology has great potential if placed in caring hands. Whilst it is a guide to the newest developments in education technology, it is also a book for those faculty, technology professionals, and higher education policy-makers who want to understand the economic and pedagogical impact of technology on professors and students. It advocates a path into the future based on faculty autonomy, shared governance, and concentration on the university's traditional role of promoting the common good.

Offering the first critical, in-depth assessment of the political economy of education technology, this book will serve as an invaluable guide to concerned faculty, as well as to anyone with an interest in the future of higher education.

- ISBN-13: 9781138910416 ISBN-10: 1138910414
- Pubished by Routledge in August of 2016, in the series Economics in the Real World.
**Available**- Here is a blog post we wrote for Routledge's website related to our book:
**Contents**Preface

Chapter 1. Introduction

Chapter 2. Online Education: The Good, the Bad and the Ugly

Chapter 3. MOOCs

Chapter 4. Free/Libre/Open-Source Edtech

Chapter 5. Unbundling

Chapter 6. Electronic Taylorism

Chapter 7. Social Media in the Classroom and Out

Chapter 8. The Zero-Marginal-Cost Education

Chapter 9. Conclusion: Higher Education in a Digital Age

Appendix: Jonathans' Laws

Bibliography

Index

**Yet Another Introductory Number Theory Textbook (Cryptology Emphasis Version)**

[**Please note:**what follows is information about the first version of this book. A more current version is in the process of being written, the PDF of which can be found here, and whose source files will be posted probably in August of 2015; come back then if you want the recent version in a form you can modify yourself.]- Available for download and remix, under a Creative Commons CC BY-SA 4.0 US licence. First used for Math 319: Number Theory at Colorado State University-Pueblo in the spring of 2014.
- pdf — 864K
- source code can be found here
- You can buy a physical copy, if that's your thing, from the
on-demand printing service
**Lulu**at this link for $6 (plus shipping and handling). [I make 61¢ profit for each such sale: I'm happy to reimburse you that amount if you will personally contact me.] **Preface**This is a first draft of a free (as in speech, not as in beer) (although it is free as in beer as well) undergraduate number theory textbook. It was used for Math 319 at Colorado State University – Pueblo in the spring semester of 2014. Thanks are hereby offered to the students in that class — Megan Bissell, Tennille Candelaria, Ariana Carlyle, Michael Degraw, Daniel Fisher, Aaron Griffin, Lindsay Harder, Graham Harper, Helen Huang, Daniel Nichols, and Arika Waldrep — who offered many useful suggestions and found numerous typos. I am also grateful to the students in my Math 242 Introduction to Mathematical Programming class in that same spring semester of 2014 — Stephen Ciruli, Jamen Cox, Graham Harper, Joel Kienitz, Matthew Klamm, Christopher Martin, Corey Sullinger, James Todd, and Shelby Whalen — whose various programming projects produced code that I adapted to make some of the figures and examples in the text.The author gratefully acknowledges the work

**An Introductory Course in Elementary Number Theory**by Wissam Raji [see`www.saylor.org/books/`] from which this was initially adapted. Raji's text was released under the Creative Commons**CC BY 3.0**license, see`creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0`. This work is instead released under a**CC BY-SA 4.0**license, see`creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0`. (The difference is that if you build future works off of this one, you must also release your derivative works with a license that allows further remixes over which you have no control.)This version: 7 May 2014 11:04MDT. Note this text will be frequently updated and improved as the author has time, particularly during and immediately after semesters in which it is being used in a class. Therefore please check back often to the website, which is

`www.poritz.net/jonathan/share/yaintt/`.This work is dedicated to my insanely hardworking colleagues at Colorado State University – Pueblo whose dedication to their students, their scholarship, and their communities is an inspiration. While I was working on the first version of this book, those colleagues stood up to some of the most benighted, ignorant administrative nonsense I have seen in the more than thirty years I have been involved in higher education. As MLK said, "The arc of the moral universe is long, but it bends towards justice." — It is selfless, intelligent, hard work like yours that is doing the bending.

Jonathan A. Poritz; 7 May 2014; Pueblo, Colorado, USA

**Release Notes**This version of*YAINTT*has a particular emphasis on connections to cryptology. The cryptologic material appears in Chapter 4 and §§5.5 and 5.6, arising naturally (I hope) out of the ambient number theory. The main cryptologic applications — being the RSA cryptosystem, Diffie-Hellman key exchange, and the ElGamal cryptosystem — come out so naturally from considerations of Euler's Theorem, primitive roots, and indices that it renders quite ironic G.H. Hardy's assertion of the purity and eternal inapplicability of number theory.Note, however, that once we broach the subject of these cryptologic algorithms, we take the time to make careful definitions for many cryptological concepts and to develop some related ideas of cryptology which have much more tenuous connections to the topic of number theory. This material therefore has something of a different flavor from the rest of the text — as is true of all scholarly work in cryptology (indeed, perhaps in all of computer science), which is clearly a discipline with a different culture from that of "pure" mathematics. Obviously, these sections could be skipped by an uninterested reader, or remixed away by an instructor for her own particular class approach.

**Caution:**In good Bourbaki [A fictional mathematician and author of many (non-fictional — they really exist) fine mathematics texts, such as**[Bou04]**] style, where this symbol appears in the text below, it indicates a place where the reasoning is intricate and difficult to follow, or calls attention to a common misinterpretation of some point.This version, in PDF form, can be found at

`http://www.poritz.net/jonathan/share/yaintt.pdf`

while all the files to create custom versions can be found at

`http://www.poritz.net/jonathan/share/yaintt/`

— have fun with it, that's the point of the Creative Commons!**Contents**Preface

Release Notes

Chapter 1. Well-Ordering and Division

1.1 The Well-Ordering Principle and Mathematical Induction

1.2 Algebraic Operations with Integers

1.3 Divisibility and the Division Algorithm

1.4 Representations of Integers in Different Bases

1.5 The Greatest Common Divisor

1.6 The Euclidean Algorithm

Chapter 2. Congruences

2.1 Introduction to Congruences

2.2 Linear Congruences

2.3 The Chinese Remainder Theorem

2.4 Another Way to Work with Congruences: Equivalence Classes

2.5 Euler's $\phi$ Function

Chapter 3. Primes Numbers

3.1 Basics and the FTA

3.2 Wilson's Theorem

3.3 Multiplicative Order and Applications

3.4 Another Approach to Fermat's Little and Euler's Theorems

Chapter 4. Cryptology

4.1 Some Speculative History

4.2 The Caesar Cipher and Its Variants

4.3 First Steps into Cryptanalysis: Frequency Analysis

4.4 Public-Key Crypto: the RSA Cryptosystem

4.5 Digital Signatures

4.6 Man-in-the-Middle Attacks, Certificates, and Trust

Chapter 5. Indices = Discrete Logarithms

5.1 More Properties of Multiplicative Order

5.2 A Necessary Digression: Gauss's Theorem on Sums of Euler's Function

5.3 Primitive Roots

5.4 Indices

5.5 Diffie-Helman Key Exchange

5.6 The ElGamal Cryptosystem

Index

**Digital Security HOWTO: Protect your Data, Communications, and Activities, & Painlessly Integrate Teaching Simple Security Into Classes**- At
**Domains 2017: Indie EdTech and Other Curiosities**hosted by the*University of Oklahoma*, 5-6 June 2017. - Last slide:

**Final Thoughts [RIP?]**

- How are people in the academic world comfortable using nonfree software?
- Things you can do to model good security practice:
- Use a good password. [Your current password is very weak, almost certainly, even if it is very hard for you to remember.]
- Encrypt all of your drives.
- Encrypt your email.
- Get an SSL certificate for your site.
- Use
**HPPS Everywhere**,**Privacy Badger,**

- Ways to get your posse [students, faculty, staff] started:
- Make a rule that you will only accept [certain kinds of] email from students if it is encrypted?
- Make installing SSL (from
**Let's Encrypt**) a standard [required] practice in your class or institution or DoOO operation.

- Think and talk about security
**all the damn time**.- Don't admit you're afraid of it.
- There are
**many**,**fantastic**books/HOWTOs/manpages/Khan Academy Videos/*etc*. - Ask a cryptologist when you're concerned. Most of us are very nice people.

^{*}

^{*}But it's pretty cool, too. - Here are the slides I used for the talk.

- At
[Yes, that should have been "Higher Education", but this misprint in the conference program was amusing to a mathematician.]**Technology and the Future of Higher Equation: The 'Net as Neoliberal Dystopia**- At the
**Symposium on Academic Freedom**sponsored by the*Colorado Conference*of the*American Association of University Professors*on 29 April 2017. **Abstract:**The Internet is actually, from many perspectives, a frightening neoliberal dystopia. The ways this affects academia — which are numerous and highly disruptive — hits the academic life largely in the perfect center of what is*academic freedom*. Faculty need to wake up to this fact, seize control back of academic freedom in technical matters, and not simply let the neoliberal hegemony crash over our heads. Fortunately, there are strategies and tools, such as*free/libre, open-source software [FLOSS]*and the*Creative Commons*which will give us a good hope of prevailing in the end.- Here are the slides I was originally
intending to use for this talk. Be warned, however, that the
actual talk was
**very**different from these slides, because the was shorter than anticipated (due to a crazy April Colorado blizzard messing up all the timing) and the heightened emphasis on*neoliberalism*which seemed appropriate given the other symposium attendees. - Here is a video of the actual presentation.

- At the
**Encrypt Your Email and Hard Drive: A Practical and Mathematical Introduction to Protecting Your Data from Criminals and Surveillance**- An event sponsored by the
*Math and Physics Club*of CSUP on 2 December 2015. **Abstract:**The Math and Physics Club of CSU-Pueblo brings you this very practical (and, ok, somewhat mathematical, because that's who we are) introduction to using encryption to protect your data both when it is standing still on your computer and when it is in flight over the Internet, such as in an email.- Here is a web page with the text displayed during the talk, links to follow, (hints of) some additional material which I didn't have time to cover, and a video of the talk itself.

- An event sponsored by the
the Colorado State University—Pueblo on 25 September 2014.**Information Technology Wants to Be Free**- This was the Colorado State
University—Pueblo
College of Science and
Mathematics
*Food for Thought Colloquium*on 25 September 2014. **Abstract:**There is a thriving ecosystem of free* software for doing everything computers can do. This software is as easy to use but more reliable and powerful than commercial software. If you believe in peer review of new scientific results, you should be using free software. You should certainly be using free software if you are a dissident living in a country with a repressive government or if you want to use the Internet anywhere on the planet while protecting your privacy and security.The free software movement largely came out of university science departments at the beginning of the computer age, and has continued to provide tools for scientific research, communication, and education. In this talk, I will survey some of these tools and then concentrate on two particular areas in which I have been involved recently: open publishing (free textbooks!) and free on-line homework systems.

*The word "free" here is to be thought of as "unrestricted", NOT as "cost=$0" -- the standard quip here is that we mean "Free as in speech, not as in beer." A term which might be more familiar is "open-source," although the openness of the source code is only one aspect of the freedom under discussion.- Here is a web page with the text displayed during the talk, links to follow, (hints of) some additional material which I didn't have time to cover, and a video of the talk itself.

- This was the Colorado State
University—Pueblo
College of Science and
Mathematics

**Property attestation--scalable and privacy-friendly security assessment of peer computers**- With Matthias Schunter, Els Van Herreweghen and Michael Waidner
- IBM Research Report RZ3548, 2004; © 2004 IBM
- PDF — 296K
**Abstract:**A core security challenge is the integrity verification of the software that is executed on a machine. For example, an enterprise needs to know whether a gate- way machine has been infected by malicious code. One prevailing approach is to use directories of configuration check-sums to detect when a configuration has been changed (see`www.tripwire.org`). These software-only solutions have limitations when the operating system itself is compromised. The tamper-resistant Trusted Platform Module (TPM) specified by the Trusted Computing Group (TCG) allows a TPM-enhanced platform to securely attest to a configuration of a machine. Based on such binary attestation, a verifying peer computer can then decide whether or not to trust the verified platform.In this paper, we argue that the approach of binary attestation is not privacy-friendly, scalable or open and vendor-neutral. The main criticism is that this approach needlessly discloses the complete configuration (i.e., all executed software) of a machine. The focus of binary attestation are the binaries instead of their security. We present a protocol and architecture for property attestation that resolves these problems. With property attestation, a verifier is securely assured of

*security properties*of the verified platform's execution environment without receiving detailed configuration data. This enhances privacy and scalability since the verifier needs to be aware of its few required security properties instead of an huge number of acceptable configurations.- Also available directly from IBM.

**Alternative computational devices and architectures**- With Giovanni Cherubini, Heike Riel and Gian Salis
- Published 2003
- Unfortunately, this is an
**IBM Confidential**research report.

**Full Design of Dependable Third Party Services**- With Christian Cachin (editor),
*et al.* - Deliverable D5, Project MAFTIA IST-1999-11583, 2001
**Abstract:**This document describes the designs of a generic distributed certification authority and of a trusted party for optimistic fair exchange that are based on fault-tolerant middleware for service replication. It also discusses other uses of the replication middleware for implementing trusted services. It may serve as a blueprint for building generic trusted third-party services that use the state-machine replication approach.- See NOTE
_{2}, below for copyright information - PDF — 188K
- Also available as IBM Research Report RZ3394 (which is © 2001 IBM)

- With Christian Cachin (editor),
**First specification of APIs and protocols for the MAFTIA middleware**- With Nuno Ferreira Neves and Paulo Verissimo (editors),
*et al.* - Deliverable D24, Project MAFTIA IST-1999-11583, 2001
**Abstract:**This document describes the first specification of the APIs and Protocols for the MAFTIA Middleware. The architecture of the middleware subsystem has been described in a previous document, where the several modules and services were introduced: Activity Services; Communication Services; Network Abstraction; Trusted and Untrusted Components. The purpose of the present document is to make concrete the functionality of the middleware components, by defining their application programming interfaces, and describing the protocols implementing the above-mentioned functionality.- See NOTE
_{2}, below for copyright information - PDF — 816K
- Also available as IBM Research Report RZ3365 (which is © 2001 IBM)

- With Nuno Ferreira Neves and Paulo Verissimo (editors),
**Specification of dependable trusted third parties**- With Christian Cachin (editor),
*et al.* - Deliverable D26, Project MAFTIA IST-1999-11583, 2001
**Abstract:**This document describes an architecture for secure service replication in an asynchronous network like the Internet, where a malicious adversary may corrupt some servers and control the network. The underlying protocols for Byzantine agreement and for atomic broadcast rely on recent developments in threshold cryptography. These assumptions are discussed in detail and compared to related work from the last decade. A formal model using concepts from modern cryptography is developed, modular definitions for several broadcast problems are presented, including reliable, atomic, and secure causal broadcast, and protocols implementing them. Reliable broadcast is a basic primitive, also known as the Byzantine generals problem, providing agreement on a delivered message. Atomic broadcast imposes additionally a total order on all delivered messages. A randomized asynchronous atomic broadcast protocol is presented that maintains liveness and safety at the same time. It is based on a new efficient protocol for multi-valued asynchronous Byzantine agreement with an external validity condition. Secure causal broadcast extends atomic broadcast by encryption to guarantee a causal order among the delivered messages. Furthermore, it is discussed how several distributed trusted applications can be realized using such an architecture: a digital notary service, a trusted third party for fair exchange, a certification authority, and an authentication service.- See NOTE
_{2}, below for copyright information - PDF — 456K
- Also available as IBM Research Report RZ3318 (which is © 2001 IBM)

- With Christian Cachin (editor),

**Finding geometry in classical number theory: the Chinese Remainder Theorem, Kronecker's Theorem and wrapping lines around tori**- Under construction

**Perelman proves Poincaré**- This is an expository paper on the Poincaré and Geometrization Conjectures. The goal of the paper is to lay out all of the definitions, as well as some related motivational results and explanatory material, in a form which should be accessible to an advanced undergraduate mathematics student (say who has had advanced calculus and some linear and abstract algebra).
- PDF — 268K

**Hash chains: a weak link in trusted computing**- Undergoing revisions
- ...but here (ps.gz — 180K; PDF — 220K) is a preliminary version

**Who?ogle: an associative interface to the web which preserves individual and community privacy**- In preparation, watch this space.

**Hem-lines, web rankings and other correlates of the stock market**- In preparation, watch this space.

**Ergodic theory and cryptography**- In preparation, watch this space.

**Method and device for verifying the security of a computing platform**- With Matthias Schunter, Els Van Herreweghen and Michael Waidner
*US 7,770,000 B2*, granted August 3, 2010- Here is the patent summary page: PDF — 180K
**Abstract:**Method and device for verifying the security of a computing platform. In the method for verifying the security of a computing platform a verification machine is first transmitting a verification request via an integrity component to the platform. Then the platform is generating by means of a trusted platform module a verification result depending on binaries loaded on the platform, and is transmitting it to the integrity verification component. Afterwards, the integrity verification component is determining with the received verification result the security properties of the platform and transmits them to the verification machine. Finally, the verification machine is determining whether the determined security properties comply with desired security properties.- owned by IBM

**Attestation of computing platforms**- With Jan Camenisch and Roger Zimmermann
- US Patent Application No. 12/439,236, Publication No. US 2009/0271618 A1, filed July 3, 2007
- PDF — 104K
**Abstract:**A method and apparatus for attesting the configuration of a computing platform to a verifier. A signature key ($SK$) is bound to the platform and bound to a defined configuration of the platform. A credential ($C(SK)$,$C_{DAA}(SK)$) for the signature key ($SK$) is obtained from an evaluator. This credential ($C(SK)$,$C_{DAA}(SK)$) certifies that the signature key ($SK$) is bound to an unspecified trusted platform configuration. The platform can then demonstrate to the verifier the ability to sign a challenge from the verifier using the signature key ($SK$), and demonstrate possession of the credential ($C(SK)$,$C_{DAA}(SK)$) to the verifier, thereby attesting that the platform has a trusted configuration without disclosing the platform configuration to the verifier.- owned by IBM

**Method and system to authenticate an application in a computing platform operating in Trusted Computing Group (TCG) domain**- With Bernhard Jansen, Luke O'Connor, and Els Van Herreweghen
- US Patent Application No. 11/957,408, Publication No. US 2008/0288783 A1, filed December 14, 2007
- PDF — 152K
**Abstract:**A method and system for verifying authenticity of an application in a computing-platform operating in a Trusted Computing Group (TCG) domain is provided. The method includes computing one or more integrity measurements corresponding to one or more of the applicatoin, a plurality of precedent-applications, and an output file. The output file includes an output of the application, the application is executing on the computing-platform. Each precedent-application is excuted before the application. The method further includes comparing one or more integrity measurements with re-computed integrity meaurements. The re-computed integrity measurements are determined corresponding to one or more of the application, the plurality of precedent-applications, and the computing-platform.- owned by IBM

NOTE

NOTE_{2}: Despite extensive research, it remains unclear to me
who owns the copyright on MAFTIA deliverables — perhaps it is some
branch of the EU? — and the MAFTIA
web site does not clearly answer this question. In cases where this
could be a concern, I suggest contancting one of the senior (former)
MAFTIA organizers or perhaps the EU Information Society and Media
Directorate-General (see
this web site).

Jonathan Poritz (jonathan@poritz.net) |
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