Math 156 — Introduction to Statistics

Section 3, MWF 11-11:50 ["Workshop Statistics"]

Homework Assignments & Course Schedule

In the following all sections and page numbers refer to the required
course textbook, * Workshop Statistics: Discovery with Data and the
Graphing Calculator, Third Edition*, by Allan Rossman, Beth Chance,
and J. Barr Von Oehsen.

This schedule is subject to change, but should be accurate at any moment for at least a couple of weeks in the future.

Here is a link back to the course syllabus/policy page.

Please send me (at jonathan.poritz@gmail.com ) a message telling me:**Send me e-mail:**- Your name.
- Your e-mail address. (Please give me one that you actually check fairly frequently, since I may use it to contact you during the term.)
- Your phone number. (Skip this is you wish; the math department has
asked me to collect this information, in case we need to contact you
quickly, but it cannot be
*required*of you, by privacy laws.) - Your year/program/major at CSUP.
- What you intend to do after CSUP, in so far as you have an idea.
- Past math classes you've had.
- The reason you are taking this course.
- Anything else you think I should know (disabilities, employment
or other things that take a lot of time,
*etc.*) - [Optional:] The best book you have read recently.
- [Optional:] When you are studying, do you like to listen to music? If so, what kind of music?
- [Optional:] Fill in the blanks: "If Mathematics were an animal, it would be a ........ because ........"

**HW0**and do it some time Monday. But as some direct incentive: I will only enter your name into my gradebook and give you your "late HW passes" when I get this e-mail, so you really need to do this assignment ASAP. Please take a moment to be complete (indeed, be as expansive as you can) — the more information I have about you, the better I can adapt the course to your needs and interests.*Content this week:***Observational units****quantitative variables****categorical variables**(which can even be**binary**)**bar graph, dot plot (histogram)**- center, spread ...
*interpretation*of histograms

*Read:**To the Student*, pp.*xxi-xxii*.*Organization of*, p.**Workshop Statistics***xxiii-xxvii**Topic 1**Topic 2*

*The plan:**M:*organizational discussion in class; do**HW0**, described above.*W:*1-1, 1-2 (skimmed) and 1-4 in class*F:*2-1, 2-3, 2-5 in class; hand in**HW1:**1-9, 1-13, 1-15

*NOTE:*Friday is the last day to add classes

*Content this week:***population***v.s.***sample**- samples have a
**size**and can be**representative**or**biased** **parameter***v.s.***statistic****explanatory***v.s.***response**variables**observational study****lurking**and**confounding**variables**simple random sample**(or**SRS**)**sampling variability**

*Read:**Topic 3**Topic 4*

*The plan:**M:*3-1, 3-2 in class; hand in**HW2:**2-10, 2-13*W:*3-3, 3-4, 4-1 (start) in class; hand in**HW3:**3-7, 3-8*F:***Quiz 1 today**; 4-1 (finish), 4-2, 4-3&4 (as a class) in class; no**HW**to hand in today (!)

*NOTE:***We do have classes**on Monday, September 1st, even though it is indeed the federal Labor Day holiday.

*Content this week:*- more on
**representative**and**bias** - a
**simple random sample, SRS** **anecdotal evidence**(is bad)**experiments**(as opposed to "observational studies")**randomized assignment**and especially**randomized comparative experiments**- a
**placebo**and the**placebo effect** **blind**and**double blind**experiments

- more on
*Read:**Topic 5*

*The plan:**M:*discussion of "representative", "bias" and issues of recent HWs and Friday's quiz, in class; finished 4-2*W:*5-1, 5-2 in class; hand in**HW4:**4-12, 4-16, 4-20*F:***Quiz 2 today**; 5-2, 5-4 in class; hand in**HW5:**5-7, 5-9, 5-10

*NOTE:*Monday is the last day to drop classes.

*Content this week:*- qualitative features of distributions:
**center**,**spread**,**shape**,**outliers** - three shapes to identify:
**symmetric**,**skewed to the right**,**skewed to the left** **stemplots**, sometimes which are**side-by-side****histograms**and how to make them, also on the calculator

- qualitative features of distributions:
*Read:**Topic 7*

*The plan:**M:*7-1, 7-2 in class; hand in**HW6:**5-19, 5-20*W:*7-3, 7-4, in class; hand in**HW7:**7-8, 7-10*F:***Quiz 3 today**; 7-5 in class; hand in**HW8:**7-9, 7-11, 7-12

*Content this week:*- Test I on Wednesday, and therefore
- review on Monday. also, on Monday, is due
**HW9:**7-17, 7-20, 7-21, 7-22

**TEST I on Wednesday:**bring your calculator

*Content this week:*- Measures of the
*center*of data:**mean**,**median**, and**mode** *sensitivity to outliers*of these measures of center

- Measures of the
*Read:**Topic 8*

*The plan:**M:*8-1, 8-2 (start) in class; hand in, if you like, re-worked Test I answers for (some) extra credit*W:*8-2 (finish), 8-6, 8-12, in class; hand in**HW10:**8-8, 8-11*F:*discussing recent and upcoming HW and test re-dos in class; hand in**HW11:**8-17, 8-18 (you will have to figure out and enter the data by hand)**Due to the special event on campus today, students' absences will be excused and HW11 will be accepted if it comes in on Monday. Note also that the quiz which should have happened today will take place instead on Monday.**

*Content this week:*- measures of the
*spread*of data:**standard deviation**and**inter-quartile range**(**SD**and**IQR**) **quartiles**- the
**empirical rule**for bell-shaped distributions, also known as the**68-95-99.7 Rule** **standardizing**data to get*z*-scores- the
**five-number summary**of some data - a
**boxplot**(or**box and whisker plot**) is a visual version of the five-number summary.

- measures of the
*Read:**Topic 9**Topic 10*

*The plan:**M:*9-1, 9-2, 9-3 (start) in class; hand in**HW12**: 8-23, 8-24, 8-27.*W:*9-3 (finish), 9-4, 9-5, in class; hand in**HW13:**9-10, 9-17, 9-20*F:***Quiz 4 today**; 10-1, 10-2, in class; hand in**HW14:**9-11, 9-14

*Content this week:***scatterplots****association**in two-variable data- the
**form**of an association:**linear**or**curved** - the
**direction**of an association:**positive**or**negative** - the
**strength**of an association:**strong**,**moderate**, or**weak** - the
**correlation coefficient**and its properties/meaning

*Read:**Topic 26**Topic 27*

*The plan:**M:*26-1, 26-2, 26-3, in class; hand in**HW15**: 10-6, 10-15, 10-20, 10-22*W:*26-6, 27-2 (using a subset of the data), 27-3 (using a subset of the data), in class*F:***Quiz 5 today**; finish Topic 27, in class; hand in**HW16**: 26-9, 26-10, 26-12

*Content this week:*- Test II and post-test discussion
**(least squares) regression line**[starting]

*Read (starting only after the test is handed back):**Topic 28*

*The plan:**M:***Test II**bring your calculator — also be sure to bring your book as I will examine the completed in-class Activities from your books during the test; before the test, hand in**HW17**: 27-9, 27-12, 27-17*W:*Test II post-mortem*F:*introduction to regression

*NOTE:*Friday is the last day to withdraw (with a**W**) from classes

*Content this week:*- the least squares regression line
- residuals
- using the LSRL for prediction
- finding the equation of the LSRL with the calculator or by hand
- the coefficient of determination
- residual plots
- the Normal distribution
- calculating Normal probabilities (areas under the Normal curve)
- standardizing Normal RVs
- using the Standard Normal Table; symmetries

*Read:**Topic 28**Topic 12*

*The plan:**M:*continued intro to regression, discussed 28-5, 28-10 as a class, started 28-3 in groups*W:*finish 28-3, in class*F:***Quiz 6 today**; 12-1, 12-2 (skip*e*), in class; hand in**HW18**: 28-6, 28-7, 28-8, 28-24

*Content this week:*- a
**sample proportion***p-hat*, which is a statistic used to study the**population proportion**π **sampling variability**causes a sample statistic to have a**sampling distribution**as the experiment is repeated and the sample recalculated.For sufficiently large sample sizes**The Central Limit Theorem**[for proportions]:*n*, the sampling distribution of the sample proportion*p-hat*is a Normal distribution with mean equal the population proportion π and whose standard deviation is*SQRT(π(1-π)/n)*.

- a
*Read:**Topic 12**Topic 13*

*The plan:**M:*finish 12-2, 12-3, in class;*W:*13-1, 13-2 (all together), in class; hand in**HW19**: 12-5, 12-6, 12-7, and 12-10*F:***Quiz 7 today**; finish 13-2, 13-3, in class;

*Content this week:***confidence intervals***[CIs]*for proportions**margin of error****standard error**the*VERY IMPORTANT:***confidence level**of a CI- conditions under which our CIs are reasonably accurate:
*np≥10*and*n(1-p)≥10* - determining the sample size needed to achieve a certain margin of error.

*Read:**Topic 13**Topic 16*

*The plan:**M:*16-1, 16-2, in class; hand in**HW20**: 12-16, 12-17, 13-5, 13-7, 13-8*W:*16-3, 16-4 (all together), in class;*F:***Quiz 8 today**; 16-4 (finish), 16-5, in class; hand in**HW21**: 13-14, 16-12, 16-13, 16-19

*Content this week:*- continuing confidence intervals
- Test III (on Friday)

*Read:**Topic 17*

*The plan:*

**Thanksgiving Break!**No classes, of course.

*Content this week:***tests of significance**(also called**hypothesis tests**)- the
**null hypothesis** - the
**alternative hypothesis** **one-sided**(or**one-tailed**)*vs***two-sided**(or**two-tailed**) tests- the
**test statistic**of a test of significance - the
of a test (it's meaning is*p*-value)*VERY IMPORTANT* - the
**significance level**of a test **test decisions**- conditions for the validity of these tests:
- data is from a SRS
*nπ*,_{0}≥10*n(1-π*_{0})≥10

*Read:**Topic 17*

*The plan:**M:*17-1, in class; also some discussion of Test III (here is a solution sheet, unfortunately missing the graphs -- come to me for those, or get them in from version handed out in class)*W:*17-2 and starting final review, in class;*F:***Quiz 9 today**[*Hint: it*; continuing final review in class; hand in**will**be identical to one of the Test III problems]**HW23**: 17-8, 17-12, 17-19, 17-20, 17-24a-c

**Exam week**, no classes.- ... but we will have an
**extra review session at 1pm on Monday, December 8th**in a room to be determined (but look on the door of our usual classroom at that time for an update with the correct room number) - Our
bring your calculator*FINAL EXAM*is on Wednesday, December 10, 2008, from 10:30-12:50pm in our usual classroom: